Consonants

Certain pairs of consonants are difficult to pronounce for speakers of some languages. These charts put together some of the difficult pairs or groups.

L and R      [ l ] and [ r ]

Nasals        [ m ] [ n ] and [ ng ]

Stops          [ t ] and [ d ]          [ k ] and [ g ]

Labials

[ p ] and [ b ]        [ w ] and [ v ]        [ f ] and [ v ]

[ p ] and [ f ]         [ b ] and [ v ]         [ f ] and [ h ]

Fricatives and Affricates

[ s ] and [ z ]           [ s ] and [ sh ]        [ sh ] and [ ch ]

[ j ] and [ z ]           [ ch ] and [ j ]         [ s ] [ z ] [ sh ] [ ch ] and [ j ]

Pairs with th-

[ th ] voiced and voiceless               [ th ] and [ s ]         [ th ] and [ sh ]

[ th ] and [ t ]        [ th ] and [ f ]        [ th ] and [ z ]         [ th ] and [ d ]

[ th ] and [ v ]       [ th ] [ z ] [ d ] and [ v ]        [ th ] [ s ] [ sh ] [ f ] and [ t ]

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